The effects of alpha conditioning on the habits of four methadone maintained patients were assessed. All four learned some control over alpha activity in the 5-week, 10-session training period. The most striking results, however, related to the subjects’ substitution of self-initiated mental states associated with alpha for previously used drug-seeking or self-medicating methods of coping with everday problem situations. All four subject reported a decrease in illicit drug usage and an increased feeling of self-control. Verification of improvement in adjustment and drug abuse was shown by counseling reports and narcotic screens from the maintenance program.